Community health improvement planning (CHIP) processes – The processes used to develop and support long term-strategies to address public health problems and achieve health equity in a defined community.

Community health initiative (CHI) – A unique effort required of hospitals when a Determination of Need project is approved. CHIs focus on addressing social determinants of health and health inequities.

Disparities or inequalities – Differences between individuals or population groups.

Environmental change approach – Changes to the physical, social, or economic environment.

Health equity – Health equity means everyone has a fair and just opportunity to be as healthy as possible. To achieve this, we must remove barriers to health — such as poverty, discrimination, and deep power imbalances. We must also remove  their consequences, including lack of access to good jobs with fair pay, quality education and housing, safe environments, and health care (source: Human Impact Partners, Health Equity Guide

Inequities – Differences that are unnecessary and can be avoided.  They are also unfair and unjust.

Institutional racism – The policies and practices of organizations (education, transportation, housing, healthcare, and others.) that create different outcomes for different racial groups. (source: Z. Bailey, et al – “Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: Evidence and interventions”)

Policy change approach – Changes to laws, regulations, procedures, administrative actions, incentives, or voluntary practices of governments and other institutions.

Racial equity – Just and fair inclusion into a society in which all people, no matter their race or ethnicity, can participate, prosper, and reach their full potential (source: PolicyLink, The Competitive Advantage of Racial Equity)

Social determinants of health (SDoH) – Conditions in the environments in which people live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks. (source: Healthy People 2020, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Structural racism – All the ways in which societies discriminate against racial groups through systems of housing, education, employment, earnings, benefits, credit, media, health care, and criminal justice. These patterns and practices then reinforce discriminatory beliefs, values, and distribution of resources. (source: Z. Bailey, et al – “Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: Evidence and interventions”)

Systems change approach – Changes that impact all elements – including social norms – of an organization, institution, or system.